Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine effects of group music intervention and self-directed music intervention on anxiety, depression, and cognitive appraisal among women with breast cancer. Methods: A quasi-experimental design randomly assigned 60 women undergoing chemotherapy to 3 groups: group music intervention, self-directed music intervention, or a control group. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale were administered before, after the 8-week interventions, and at 3-month follow-up. Results: Of the 52 women completing the study, results indicated that group music intervention had a significant (p < .01) immediate effect to decrease helplessness/hopelessness and anxious preoccupation and significant effects for reducing anxiety, depression, helplessness/hopelessness, and cognitive avoidance compared to the other two groups at 3-month follow-up. Conclusions: Group music intervention can be considered an effective supportive care in alleviating the chemotherapy-related distress and enhancing cognition modification of women with breast cancer. Further research is needed to determine the role of cognitive appraisal in the illness trajectory.
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