Background and purpose: Few studies have used motion analysis in the study of facial animation. A facial animation model using an expert vision motion analysis system was developed in this study to quantitatively evaluate absolute movement during five facial animations. Methods: Skin markers were adhered to the face of each subject at 16 anatomic landmarks selected to represent the functional movement of the facial muscles. Three of the 16 skin markers were used to establish a local face frame with the origin in the mid- point of the face. All of the coordinates measured in the laboratory frame were rotated and translated to the local face frame for analysis. The trajectory of the facial markers was evaluated from the local face frame when comparing two-dimensional (2-D) displacement of skin markers (frontal plane) with three-dimensional (3-D) values by paired Student's t-test. Results: Although the correlation of 2-D and 3-D displacements of skin markers was high (r > 0.69), the differences between 2-D and 3-D motion were significant (p < 0,001). The 2-D displacement of skin markers underestimated the 3-D facial animation in each marker and animation. There were no significant differences in the movement of both mouth angles or of the eyes. Thirty repeated measurements of a subject revealed good concentration in 3-D displacement, velocity, and angle of movement in smiling. The measurement error was less than 0.06 min. The normative displacement of individual anatomic landmarks was evaluated to avoid size differences of individual faces. Conclusions: We suggest that the expert vision motion analysis technique is feasible for quantitative evaluation of absolute facial movement and would be useful for further clinical evaluation of patients with facial palsy.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of the Formosan Medical Association|
|Publication status||Published - 2000 May 1|
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