Comprehension of handwriting development: Pen-grip kinetics in handwriting tasks and its relation to fine motor skills among school-age children

Yu Chen Lin, Yen Li Chao, Shyi Kuen Wu, Ho Hsio Lin, Chieh Hsiang Hsu, Hsiao Man Hsu, Li Chieh Kuo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background/aim: Numerous tools have been developed to evaluate handwriting performances by analysing written products. However, few studies have directly investigated kinetic performances of digits when holding a pen. This study thus attempts to investigate pen-grip kinetics during writing tasks of school-age children and explore the relationship between the kinetic factors and fine motor skills. Methods: This study recruited 181 children aged from 5 to 12 years old and investigated the effects of age on handwriting kinetics and the relationship between these and fine motor skills. The forces applied from the digits and pen-tip were measured during writing tasks via a force acquisition pen, and the children's fine motor performances were also evaluated. Results: The results indicate that peak force and average force might not be direct indicators of handwriting performance for normally developing children at this age. Younger children showed larger force variation and lower adjustment frequency during writing, which might indicate they had poorer force control than the older children. Force control when handling a pen is significantly correlated with fine motor performance, especially in relation to the manual dexterity. Conclusions/significance of the study: A novel system is proposed for analysing school-age children's force control while handwriting. We observed the development of force control in relation to pen grip among the children with different ages in this study. The findings suggested that manipulation skill may be crucial when children are establishing their handwriting capabilities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)369-380
Number of pages12
JournalAustralian Occupational Therapy Journal
Volume64
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Oct

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Occupational Therapy

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