Coiled-coil and C2 domain containing 1A (CC2D1A) is an evolutionarily conserved protein, originally identified as a nuclear factor-κB activator through a large-scale screen of human genes. Mutations in the human Cc2d1a gene result in autosomal recessive nonsyndromic intellectual disability. It remains unclear, however, how Cc2d1a mutation leads to alterations in brain function. Here, we have taken advantage of Cre/loxP recombinase-based strategy to conditionally delete Cc2d1a exclusively from excitatory neurons of male mouse forebrain to examine its role in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. We confirmed the expression of CC2D1A protein and mRNA in the mouse hippocampus. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that CC2D1A is expressed in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons of the adult hippocampus. Conditional deletion of Cc2d1a (cKO) from excitatory neurons leads to impaired performance in object location memory test and altered anxiety-like behavior. Consistently, cKO mice displayed a deficit in the maintenance of LTP in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices. Cc2d1a deletion also resulted in decreased complexity of apical and basal dendritic arbors ofCA1pyramidal neurons.Anenhanced basal Rac1 activity was observed following Cc2d1a deletion, and this enhancement was mediated by reduced SUMO-specific protease 1 (SENP1) and SENP3 expression, thus increasing the amount of Rac1 SUMOylation. Furthermore, partial blockade of Rac1 activity rescued impairments inLTPand object locationmemoryperformance incKOmice. Together, our results implicate Rac1 hyperactivity in synaptic plasticity and cognitive deficits observed in Cc2d1a cKO mice and reveal a novel role for CC2D1A in regulating hippocampal synaptic function.
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