Gold nanoparticles provide promising applications based on their versatile properties of electromagnetic scattering and absorption and the capability of photothermal transduction relying on their size and shape. Because of their high tolerance to the environment and their excellent biocompatibility, gold nanoparticles are the most recognized nanomaterial applied in biomedicine. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a native biomaterial that stores genetic information in living organisms. Naturally, DNA can be combined with gold nanoparticles for a variety of biomedical purposes. For example, the reversible hydrogen bonding of the complementary double-stranded structures has been employed to serve as a gate keeper for the control of drug release on demand. Besides, the complementary hybridization behavior has given the specific recognition in nucleic acid for sensing feature. Accordingly, this mini-review describes how DNA–gold nanoconjugates have been formulated and aimed for drug release and sensing analysis as well as the hybrids of aptamer–gold analogy for biomedical studies. These nanoconjugates show the potential for preclinical and clinical treatments.
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