Criteria pollutants and volatile organic compounds emitted from motorcycle exhaust under various regulation phases

Jiun-Horng Tsai, Yung Chen Yao, Pei Hsiu Huang, Hung Lung Chiang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Establishment of emission standards is an important measure for controlling vehicle exhaust. This study examined the emission factors of air pollutants from 40 four-stroke motorcycles of various emission standard phases, ages, and mileage. Based on the emission standards, the motorcycles were divided into three groups (Phases III, IV and V). Regulated air pollutants (CO, HC, and NOx), CO2, and 52 volatile organic compounds were evaluated on a chassis dynamometer using the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) test cycle. The sequence of CO and HC emission factors was Phase III > Phase IV > Phase V, and their ratios of emission factor of Phase IV to Phase III and Phase V to Phase III were 0.66 and 0.42 for CO and 0.61 and 0.57 for HC, respectively. Exhaust from motorcycles deteriorates with age and mileage. For NOx emission, the sequence of emission factor was Phase V > Phase IV > Phase III. However, the relationship was insignificant between CO2 emission factor and motorcycle age. The total VOC emissions of Phase V motorcycles were the lowest (0.59 g km–1) among all test motorcycles; however, the fraction of VOC groups was similar among all test motorcycles regardless of different regulation phases. For organic air toxics, the emissions of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) decreased by 37–58% and 44–62%, respectively, for Phases IV and V motorcycles compared to those of Phase III motorcycles. Results also indicated that the ozone formation potential (OFP) was high in older motorcycles with high mileage. In summary, emissions of CO, HC, total VOCs, BTEX, and OFP may decrease with the decrease of motorcycle age and mileage as well as the phase of emission standards. The results implied that tightening emission standards indeed encourages motorcycle manufacturers to improve engine technology and combustion efficiency, resulting in reduced emission of air pollutants, except NOx emission in this study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1214-1223
Number of pages10
JournalAerosol and Air Quality Research
Volume17
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 May 1

Fingerprint

Volatile Organic Compounds
Phase control
Motorcycles
Volatile organic compounds
volatile organic compound
pollutant
Carbon Monoxide
Air Pollutants
Xylenes
Ethylbenzene
BTEX
Ozone
Toluene
Xylene
Air
Benzene
motorcycle
regulation
ozone
Poisons

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution

Cite this

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title = "Criteria pollutants and volatile organic compounds emitted from motorcycle exhaust under various regulation phases",
abstract = "Establishment of emission standards is an important measure for controlling vehicle exhaust. This study examined the emission factors of air pollutants from 40 four-stroke motorcycles of various emission standard phases, ages, and mileage. Based on the emission standards, the motorcycles were divided into three groups (Phases III, IV and V). Regulated air pollutants (CO, HC, and NOx), CO2, and 52 volatile organic compounds were evaluated on a chassis dynamometer using the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) test cycle. The sequence of CO and HC emission factors was Phase III > Phase IV > Phase V, and their ratios of emission factor of Phase IV to Phase III and Phase V to Phase III were 0.66 and 0.42 for CO and 0.61 and 0.57 for HC, respectively. Exhaust from motorcycles deteriorates with age and mileage. For NOx emission, the sequence of emission factor was Phase V > Phase IV > Phase III. However, the relationship was insignificant between CO2 emission factor and motorcycle age. The total VOC emissions of Phase V motorcycles were the lowest (0.59 g km–1) among all test motorcycles; however, the fraction of VOC groups was similar among all test motorcycles regardless of different regulation phases. For organic air toxics, the emissions of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) decreased by 37–58{\%} and 44–62{\%}, respectively, for Phases IV and V motorcycles compared to those of Phase III motorcycles. Results also indicated that the ozone formation potential (OFP) was high in older motorcycles with high mileage. In summary, emissions of CO, HC, total VOCs, BTEX, and OFP may decrease with the decrease of motorcycle age and mileage as well as the phase of emission standards. The results implied that tightening emission standards indeed encourages motorcycle manufacturers to improve engine technology and combustion efficiency, resulting in reduced emission of air pollutants, except NOx emission in this study.",
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Criteria pollutants and volatile organic compounds emitted from motorcycle exhaust under various regulation phases. / Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Yao, Yung Chen; Huang, Pei Hsiu; Chiang, Hung Lung.

In: Aerosol and Air Quality Research, Vol. 17, No. 5, 01.05.2017, p. 1214-1223.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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