Kuo Hung Hsiao, Kuo Hung Hsiao, Hong Sen Yan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Ancient Chinese crossbows combine cam and flexible connecting mechanisms to shoot bolts for attacking long-distance targets. They are typical military weapons developed from the application of elasticity. After the Spring-Autumn and Warring Periods (770-221 BC), the manufacturing technology for crossbows matured and evolved into many different types, such as the original crossbow, Chu State repeating crossbow, and Zhuge repeating crossbow. Since the types of crossbows were diversified and widely used in ancient China, the structures of crossbows should have many designs in different eras and regions. This chapter systematically reconstructs all feasible designs of the crossbows that met the ancient technological standards. The development of ancient Chinese crossbows is introduced. The mechanism structures of crossbows are analyzed. The design constraints for the reconstruction designs are concluded and the different types of crossbows are illustrated as examples.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHistory of Mechanism and Machine Science
PublisherSpringer Netherland
Number of pages24
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jan 1

Publication series

NameHistory of Mechanism and Machine Science
ISSN (Print)1875-3442
ISSN (Electronic)1875-3426

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • History
  • Mechanical Engineering


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