Delayed granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment promotes functional recovery in rats with severe contusive spinal cord injury

Jung Shun Lee, Cheng Chang Yang, Yu Min Kuo, Chun I. Sze, Jung Yu C. Hsu, Yi Hung Huang, Shun Fen Tzeng, Ching Lin Tsai, Hsing Hong Chen, I. Ming Jou

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22 Citations (Scopus)


Study Design: We used a severe contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) model and electrophysiologic, motor functional, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic examinations to analyze the neuroprotective effects of delayed granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment. Objective: To determine the neuroprotective effects of delayed G-CSF treatment using multimodality evaluations after severe contusive SCI in rats. Summary of Background Data: Despite some reports that G-CSF treatment in the acute stage of different central nervous system injury models was neuroprotective, it has not been determined whether delayed G-CSF treatment can promote neural recovery in severe contusive SCI. Methods: Rats with severe contusive SCI were divided into 2 groups: G-CSF group rats were given serial subcutaneous injections of G-CSF, and control group rats (controls) were given only saline injections on postcontusion days 9 to 13. Using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials, we recorded functional evaluations weekly. The spinal cords were harvested for protein and immunohistochemical analysis, and for electron microscopy examination. Results: The preserved spinal cord area was larger in G-CSF group rats than in control group rats. Both sensory and motor functions improved after G-CSF treatment. Detachment and disruption of the myelin sheets in the myelinated axons were significantly decreased, and axons sprouted and regenerated. There were fewer microglia and macrophages in the G-CSF group than in the control group. The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor were comparable between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Delayed G-CSF treatment at the subacute stage of severe contusive SCI promoted spinal cord preservation and improved functional outcomes. The mechanism of G-CSF's protection may be related in part to attenuating the infiltration of microglia and macrophages.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-17
Number of pages8
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jan 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Clinical Neurology


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