Conventional direct pulp capping, such as calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) or silicate products, usually induces an inflammatory reaction to provoke pulp regeneration. Phosphophoryn (PP) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP), the two most abundant non-collagenous proteins in the dentin matrix, are responsible for dentin mineralization, pulp cell migration, and differentiation. Here we examined the PP and combined DSP/PP as bio-inductive pulp capping materials by in vitro and in vivo tests. Firstly, the effects of the PP dose on pulp cell migration and matrix protein expression were examined by an agarose bead test. Secondly, the role of recombinant DSP (recDSP) and recDSP/PP on stimulating DSP-PP transcript expression was examined by RT-PCR. DSPP mRNA was also knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi) to examine their functions on dentin matrix mineralization. Finally, we used ferret animal models to test PP and recDSP/PP acting as capping agents on in vivo pulp responses and reparative dentin formation. The result showed that intermediate-dose PP was the most effective to enhance cell migration and differentiation. RecDSP/PP strongly enhanced the DSP-PP transcript expression, while inhibition of DSPP mRNA expression by siRNAs partially or completely affected dental pulp cell mineralization. The in vivo results showed that intermediate-dose PP and recDSP/PP proteins induced less pulp inflammation and promoted reparative dentin formation. Contrarily, conventional calcium hydroxide induced severe pulp inflammation. With these findings, DSP and PP could serve as capping agents for pulp capping therapy.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Polymers and Plastics