Design and analysis of an adaptive transcutaneous power telemetry for biomedical implants

Guoxing Wang, Wentai Liu, Mohanasankar Sivaprakasam, Gurhan Alper Kendir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

394 Citations (Scopus)


Inductively coupled coil pair is the most common way of wirelessly transferring power to medical implants. However, the coil displacements and/or loading changes may induce large fluctuations in transmitted power into the implant if no adaptive control is used. In such cases, it is required to transmit excessive power to accommodate all the working conditions, which substantially reduces the power efficiency and imposes potential safety concerns. We have implemented a power transfer system with adaptive control technique to eliminate the power variations due to the loading or coupling coefficient changes. A maximum of 250 mW power is transmitted through an optimized coil pair driven by Class-E power amplifier. Load shift keying is implemented to wirelessly transfer data back from the secondary to primary side over the same coil pair, with data rate of 3.3 kbps and packet error rate less than 10-5. A pseudo pulsewidth modulation has been designed to facilitate back data transmission along with forward power transmission. Through this back telemetry the system transmits the information on received power, back from implant to primary side. According to the data received, the system adjusts the supply voltage of the Class-E power amplifier through a digitally controlled dc-dc converter, thus varying the power sent to the implant. The key system parameters are optimized to ensure the stability of the closed-loop system. Measurements show that the system can transmit the 'just-needed' power for a wide range of coil separation and/ or loading conditions, with power efficiency doubled when compared to the uncompensated link.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2109-2117
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Oct

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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