Background: In Southeast Asia, Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an important cause of viral encephalitis which may cause severe neurological sequelae. JE affects mostly children; therefore, clinical presentations and prognosis of adult JE patients are seldom addressed. This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors for the outcome of adult JE patients. Methods: Medical records of adult JE patients with acute encephalitis syndrome during 2001–2018 from five medical centers in southern Taiwan were reviewed. Clinical characteristics, brain images, and prognostic factors for outcomes were analyzed. Patients were divided into the good outcome (GO) group and poor outcome (PO) group according to their Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores (GCS >8 vs. ≤ 8) at discharge. Results: Sixty-eight patients (men, 61.8%; median age, 50 years) were included. Summer is the epidemic season, and the number of cases peaked in June. The most common symptoms at initial presentation were altered consciousness and fever (both 94.1%), followed by headache (51.4%). The most commonly involved brain regions were thalamus (55.7%) and basal ganglion (37.7%). The median GCS score at nadir was 8, and the median time from onset to nadir was five days. Fifty-two patients were included in the GO group, while 16 were included in the PO group. On multivariate analysis, flaccidity, rigidity, and elevated CSF protein level were identified as independent prognostic factors for PO. Conclusion: Initial clinical presentations of abnormal muscle tone including flaccidity, rigidity and high CSF protein levels are independent prognostic factors for PO in adult JE patients.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases