Determining the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors for the outcomes of Japanese encephalitis in adults: A multicenter study from southern Taiwan

Shih Hao Lo, Hung Jen Tang, Susan Shin Jung Lee, Jen Chieh Lee, Jien Wei Liu, Wen Chien Ko, Ko Chang, Chun Yuan Lee, Ya Ting Chang, Po Liang Lu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: In Southeast Asia, Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an important cause of viral encephalitis which may cause severe neurological sequelae. JE affects mostly children; therefore, clinical presentations and prognosis of adult JE patients are seldom addressed. This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors for the outcome of adult JE patients. Methods: Medical records of adult JE patients with acute encephalitis syndrome during 2001–2018 from five medical centers in southern Taiwan were reviewed. Clinical characteristics, brain images, and prognostic factors for outcomes were analyzed. Patients were divided into the good outcome (GO) group and poor outcome (PO) group according to their Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores (GCS >8 vs. ≤ 8) at discharge. Results: Sixty-eight patients (men, 61.8%; median age, 50 years) were included. Summer is the epidemic season, and the number of cases peaked in June. The most common symptoms at initial presentation were altered consciousness and fever (both 94.1%), followed by headache (51.4%). The most commonly involved brain regions were thalamus (55.7%) and basal ganglion (37.7%). The median GCS score at nadir was 8, and the median time from onset to nadir was five days. Fifty-two patients were included in the GO group, while 16 were included in the PO group. On multivariate analysis, flaccidity, rigidity, and elevated CSF protein level were identified as independent prognostic factors for PO. Conclusion: Initial clinical presentations of abnormal muscle tone including flaccidity, rigidity and high CSF protein levels are independent prognostic factors for PO in adult JE patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)893-901
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection
Volume52
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Dec

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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