Development, characterization, and in vitro biocompatibility of evening primrose oil nanoemulsions using ultrasonic nano-emulsification technology

I. Ting Hsieh, Tzung Han Chou, Jo Shu Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: In this study, evening primrose oil (EPO), recognized for its bioactivity and safety, played a pivotal role as a primary component in the production of nanoemulsions (NEs) through a combination of homogenization and ultrasonic nano-emulsification technology. The significance of EPO NEs lies in their potential impact on various aspects of health and well-being. The research aimed to explore the physicochemical properties, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro biocompatibility of the resulting EPO NEs by employing three distinct surfactants: dioctadecyl dimethylammonium bromide (D+), dihexadecyl phosphate (D), and saponin (Sn) for stabilization. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the preparation parameters of the NEs. The physicochemical properties of NEs were assessed using various techniques, including dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, fluorescence polarization spectroscopy, and viscometer measurements. The encapsulation efficiency of the NEs was evaluated through the use of quercetin. Furthermore, the in vitro biocompatibility of the NEs was assessed via a cell viability assay. Findings: RSM effectively determined the optimal ultrasonication operation parameters, including time and amplitude, to achieve EPO NE with the desired size and distribution. The thermal phase change and intra-particle fluidity of NEs decreased as the oil/surfactant ratio increased and varied with the type of surfactant used. Furthermore, EPO NE exhibited nearly Newtonian fluid characteristics. Most importantly, all NEs demonstrated excellent in vitro biocompatibility and high encapsulation efficiency. In conclusion, the high potential of EPO NEs underscores their pivotal role in advancing drug delivery systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105311
JournalJournal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering


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