Development of an Air Pollution Risk Perception Questionnaire for Running Race Runners Based on the Health Belief Model

Hsueh Wen Chow, Kuan Lin Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


An increasing number of individuals participate in running races worldwide; however, running in the presence of air pollution poses health risks to runners. Therefore, developing a valid and reliable instrument is imperative to assess runners’ beliefs and perceptions regarding risks and health behaviors. This study developed a comprehensive questionnaire based on the health behavior model and relevant literature. The questionnaire was tested with 310 responses from individuals with running race experiences in Taiwan. Tests of the measurement model were conducted using reliability and confirmatory factor analysis. The results reveal that the questionnaire consists of eight constructs: perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy, cues to action, health behavior intention, and awareness of air quality. The 31 items jointly accounted for 72.71% of the observed variance. All eight factors have good internal consistency, convergent, and discriminant validity with acceptable model fit indexes. Additionally, a valid translated English version of the questionnaire is provided for future research, sports agencies, or governments to explore factors that affect, or interact with, risk while running under air pollution conditions to develop management strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11419
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Sept

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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