Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is commonly used in commercial products and factories. HBCDs can be detected in the air, bioaccumulated deposits, water, soil, sediments, and in biota and foodstuffs in the food-chain because they are not chemically bound to the polymer. We determined the levels of α-, β-, and γ-HBCDs in 270 foodstuffs and the doses of HBCDs Taiwanese are normally exposed to. We also wanted to create a strategy of risk management for HBCDs based on margins of exposure (MOE). HBCDs were frequently detectible in fish, seafood, and poultry. Their highest concentrations were in fish, oil, poultry, and livestock. The highest estimated daily intake was in 0- to 3-year-olds (1.576 ng/kg/day), and lower in 3- to 6- (1.064 ng/kg/day), 6- to 12- (0.899 ng/kg/day), and lowest in 12- to 16- (0.632 ng/kg/day) year-olds. The exposure doses to HBCDs indicated no health concern for Taiwanese. Except for fish, significant concentrations of α- and γ-HBCDs were detected in many other foodstuffs, which might indicate that exposure to HBCD is a relatively recent problem. Therefore, one goal of a management policy should be to follow-up the flow direction of HBCDs in Taiwan.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis