Objectives: Sleep disturbances are prevalent problems among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. The recognition of comorbid sleep disorders in patients with HIV is currently hampered by limited knowledge of sleep-related symptoms, sleep architecture, and types of sleep disorders in this population. We aimed to compare the differences in sleep-related symptoms and polysomnography-based sleep disorders between HIV-infected persons and controls. Methods: The study evaluated 170 men with a Pittsburgh sleep quality index scores greater than 5, including 44 HIV-infected men and 126 male controls who were frequency-matched by sex, age (±3.0 years) and BMI (±3.0 kg/m2). For all participants, an overnight sleep study using a Somte V1 monitor was conducted. Differences in sleep-related symptoms and sleep disorders between HIV-infected patients and controls were examined using t-tests or chi-square tests. Results: HIV-infected persons with sleep disturbances more often had psychological disturbances (72.7% vs. 40.5%, p < 0.001) and suspected rapid eye movement behavior disorder (25.0% vs. 4.8%, p < 0.01) than controls. Sleep-disordered breathing was less common in HIV-infected persons than in controls (56.8% vs. 87.3%, p < 0.001). The mean percentage of rapid eye movement sleep was higher among HIV-in-fected patients than among controls (20.6% vs. 16.6%, p < 0.001). Nocturia was more common in HIV-infected persons than in controls (40.9% vs. 22.2%, p = 0.02). Conclusions: Psychological disturbances and sleep-disordered breathing can be possible explanations of sleep disturbances in HIV-infected persons in whom sleep-disordered breathing is notable. Further studies are warranted to examine the underlying factors of rapid eye movement behavior disorder among HIV-infected persons with sleep disturbances.
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