The relationship between the morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) and cardiovascular risk is inconclusive. Previous studies have not taken into consideration dipping status in examining the MBPS and its associated factors. The aim was to examine factors associated with the MBPS in dippers and non-dippers. The MBPS was calculated by data obtained from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, using the definition of sleep-trough morning surge. Dipping systolic blood pressure (DipSBP) was defined as [1 − (SBPsleeping/SBPawake)] × 100%. The value in milliseconds of standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR interval after waking up (SDNNaw) was calculated during the 2 h period after waking up. A total of 140 eligible subjects were divided into dippers (n = 62) and non-dippers (n = 78). Multiple regression analysis on data for all subjects revealed different correlations with the MBPS: positive in age, body mass index (BMI), and DipSBP, and inverse in cholesterol/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, fasting blood glucose, and 2 h SDNNaw. When dippers were examined separately, age, female gender, and BMI correlated positively with MBPS, while cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and 2 h SDNNaw correlated negatively. For non-dippers, only age was associated with the MBPS. The factors associated with the MBPS were different for dippers and non-dippers. The MBPS seems to be a physiological response in this dipper group because age and BMI correlated positively with the MBPS, while parasympathetic neural activity after waking up and cholesterol/HDL-C ratio showed inverse correlations.
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