Dissecting Porosity in Molecular Crystals: Influence of Geometry, Hydrogen Bonding, and [π···π] Stacking on the Solid-State Packing of Fluorinated Aromatics

Mohamed I. Hashim, Ha T.M. Le, Teng Hao Chen, Yu Sheng Chen, Olafs Daugulis, Chia Wei Hsu, Allan J. Jacobson, Watchareeya Kaveevivitchai, Xiao Liang, Tatyana Makarenko, Ognjen Miljanić, Ilja Popovs, Hung Vu Tran, Xiqu Wang, Chia Hua Wu, Judy I. Wu

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26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Porous molecular crystals are an emerging class of porous materials that is unique in being built from discrete molecules rather than being polymeric in nature. In this study, we examined the effects of molecular structure of the precursors on the formation of porous solid-state structures with a series of 16 rigid aromatics. The majority of these precursors possess pyrazole groups capable of hydrogen bonding, as well as electron-rich aromatics and electron-poor tetrafluorobenzene rings. These precursors were prepared using a combination of Pd- and Cu-catalyzed cross-couplings, careful manipulations of protecting groups on the nitrogen atoms, and solvothermal syntheses. Our study varied the geometry and dimensions of precursors, as well as the presence of groups capable of hydrogen bonding and [π···π] stacking. Thirteen derivatives were crystallographically characterized, and four of them were found to be porous with surface areas between 283 and 1821 m2 g-1. Common to these four porous structures were (a) rigid trigonal geometry, (b) [π···π] stacking of electron-poor tetrafluorobenzenes with electron-rich pyrazoles or tetrazoles, and (c) hydrogen bonding between the terminal heteroaromatic rings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6014-6026
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume140
Issue number18
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 May 9

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry

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    Hashim, M. I., Le, H. T. M., Chen, T. H., Chen, Y. S., Daugulis, O., Hsu, C. W., Jacobson, A. J., Kaveevivitchai, W., Liang, X., Makarenko, T., Miljanić, O., Popovs, I., Tran, H. V., Wang, X., Wu, C. H., & Wu, J. I. (2018). Dissecting Porosity in Molecular Crystals: Influence of Geometry, Hydrogen Bonding, and [π···π] Stacking on the Solid-State Packing of Fluorinated Aromatics. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 140(18), 6014-6026. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.8b02869