The risk of mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) significantly increases when complicated by intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). We hypothesize that serial measurement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) D-dimer levels in patients with both ICH and IVH may serve as an early marker of IVH severity. We performed a prospective study of 43 consecutive ICH patients combined with IVH and external ventricular drainage placement admitted in our institution from 2005-2006. IVH severity (Graeb score) and fibrinolytic activity were evaluated continuously for 7 days using CT scans and CSF D-dimer levels. The primary outcome was 30 day mortality. Overall 30 day mortality was 26% (n = 11), with eight deaths (72.7%) after 3 days (D3). Graeb score and CSF D-dimer on admission (D0) were not significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. The temporal profiles of both parameters were distinctly different, with a downward trend in survivors and an upward trend in non-survivors. A mortality rate of 54% was observed between D0-D3 when both scores increased during this interval. In contrast, the mortality was only 4% when both measures decreased during this interval. Early phase (D0-D3) CSF D-dimer or Graeb score change demonstrated high sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 81% when predicting 30 day mortality. Early phase CSF D-dimer change in patients with both ICH and IVH is accurate in predicting mortality and may be utilized as a cost-effective surrogate indicator of IVH severity. Serial monitoring of CSF D-dimer dynamic changes is useful for early identification of patients with hematoma progression and poor outcome.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology
- Physiology (medical)