Effect of Ag on the microstructure of Sn-8.5Zn-xAg-0.01Al-0.1Ga solders under high-temperature and high-humidity conditions

T. K. Yeh, Kwang-Lung Lin, U. S. Mohanty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effect of Ag on the microstructure and thermal behavior of Sn-Zn and Sn-8.5Zn-xAg-0.01Al-0.1Ga solders (x from 0.1 wt.% to 1 wt.%) under high-temperature/relative humidity conditions (85 C/85% RH) for various exposure times was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed that, in all the investigated solders, the primary α-Zn phases were surrounded by eutectic β-Sn/α-Zn phases, in which fine Zn platelets were dispersed in the β-Sn matrix. SEM micrographs revealed that increase of the Ag content to 1 wt.% resulted in coarsening of the dendritic plates and diminished the Sn-9Zn eutectic phase in the microstructure. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies revealed that the melting temperature of Sn-8.5Zn-xAg-0.01Al-0.1Ga solder decreased from 199.6 C to 199.2 C with increase of the Ag content in the solder alloy. Both ZnO and SnO2 along with Ag-Zn intermetallic compound (IMC) were formed on the surface when Sn-8.5Zn-0.5Ag-0.01Al-0.1Ga solder was exposed to high-temperature/high-humidity conditions (85 C/85% RH) for 100 h. The thickness of the ZnO phase increased as the Ag content and exposure time were increased. Sn whiskers of various shapes and lengths varying from 2 μm to 5 μm were extruded from the surface when the investigated five-element solder with Ag content varying from 0.5 wt.% to 1 wt.% was exposed to similar temperature/humidity conditions for 250 h. The length and density of the whiskers increased with further increase of the exposure time to 500 h and the Ag content in the solder to 1 wt.%. The Sn whisker growth was driven by the compressive stress in the solder, which was generated due to the volume expansion caused by ZnO and Ag-Zn intermetallic compound formation at the grain boundaries of Sn.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)616-627
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Volume42
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Apr 1

Fingerprint

solders
Soldering alloys
humidity
Atmospheric humidity
microstructure
Microstructure
Temperature
eutectics
Eutectics
Intermetallics
intermetallics
Scanning electron microscopy
scanning electron microscopy
Coarsening
Platelets
platelets
Compressive stress
Melting point
Differential scanning calorimetry
Grain boundaries

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

@article{3a9b271bd13d443586e81a2913d71d2c,
title = "Effect of Ag on the microstructure of Sn-8.5Zn-xAg-0.01Al-0.1Ga solders under high-temperature and high-humidity conditions",
abstract = "The effect of Ag on the microstructure and thermal behavior of Sn-Zn and Sn-8.5Zn-xAg-0.01Al-0.1Ga solders (x from 0.1 wt.{\%} to 1 wt.{\%}) under high-temperature/relative humidity conditions (85 C/85{\%} RH) for various exposure times was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed that, in all the investigated solders, the primary α-Zn phases were surrounded by eutectic β-Sn/α-Zn phases, in which fine Zn platelets were dispersed in the β-Sn matrix. SEM micrographs revealed that increase of the Ag content to 1 wt.{\%} resulted in coarsening of the dendritic plates and diminished the Sn-9Zn eutectic phase in the microstructure. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies revealed that the melting temperature of Sn-8.5Zn-xAg-0.01Al-0.1Ga solder decreased from 199.6 C to 199.2 C with increase of the Ag content in the solder alloy. Both ZnO and SnO2 along with Ag-Zn intermetallic compound (IMC) were formed on the surface when Sn-8.5Zn-0.5Ag-0.01Al-0.1Ga solder was exposed to high-temperature/high-humidity conditions (85 C/85{\%} RH) for 100 h. The thickness of the ZnO phase increased as the Ag content and exposure time were increased. Sn whiskers of various shapes and lengths varying from 2 μm to 5 μm were extruded from the surface when the investigated five-element solder with Ag content varying from 0.5 wt.{\%} to 1 wt.{\%} was exposed to similar temperature/humidity conditions for 250 h. The length and density of the whiskers increased with further increase of the exposure time to 500 h and the Ag content in the solder to 1 wt.{\%}. The Sn whisker growth was driven by the compressive stress in the solder, which was generated due to the volume expansion caused by ZnO and Ag-Zn intermetallic compound formation at the grain boundaries of Sn.",
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Effect of Ag on the microstructure of Sn-8.5Zn-xAg-0.01Al-0.1Ga solders under high-temperature and high-humidity conditions. / Yeh, T. K.; Lin, Kwang-Lung; Mohanty, U. S.

In: Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 42, No. 4, 01.04.2013, p. 616-627.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of Ag on the microstructure of Sn-8.5Zn-xAg-0.01Al-0.1Ga solders under high-temperature and high-humidity conditions

AU - Yeh, T. K.

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N2 - The effect of Ag on the microstructure and thermal behavior of Sn-Zn and Sn-8.5Zn-xAg-0.01Al-0.1Ga solders (x from 0.1 wt.% to 1 wt.%) under high-temperature/relative humidity conditions (85 C/85% RH) for various exposure times was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed that, in all the investigated solders, the primary α-Zn phases were surrounded by eutectic β-Sn/α-Zn phases, in which fine Zn platelets were dispersed in the β-Sn matrix. SEM micrographs revealed that increase of the Ag content to 1 wt.% resulted in coarsening of the dendritic plates and diminished the Sn-9Zn eutectic phase in the microstructure. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies revealed that the melting temperature of Sn-8.5Zn-xAg-0.01Al-0.1Ga solder decreased from 199.6 C to 199.2 C with increase of the Ag content in the solder alloy. Both ZnO and SnO2 along with Ag-Zn intermetallic compound (IMC) were formed on the surface when Sn-8.5Zn-0.5Ag-0.01Al-0.1Ga solder was exposed to high-temperature/high-humidity conditions (85 C/85% RH) for 100 h. The thickness of the ZnO phase increased as the Ag content and exposure time were increased. Sn whiskers of various shapes and lengths varying from 2 μm to 5 μm were extruded from the surface when the investigated five-element solder with Ag content varying from 0.5 wt.% to 1 wt.% was exposed to similar temperature/humidity conditions for 250 h. The length and density of the whiskers increased with further increase of the exposure time to 500 h and the Ag content in the solder to 1 wt.%. The Sn whisker growth was driven by the compressive stress in the solder, which was generated due to the volume expansion caused by ZnO and Ag-Zn intermetallic compound formation at the grain boundaries of Sn.

AB - The effect of Ag on the microstructure and thermal behavior of Sn-Zn and Sn-8.5Zn-xAg-0.01Al-0.1Ga solders (x from 0.1 wt.% to 1 wt.%) under high-temperature/relative humidity conditions (85 C/85% RH) for various exposure times was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed that, in all the investigated solders, the primary α-Zn phases were surrounded by eutectic β-Sn/α-Zn phases, in which fine Zn platelets were dispersed in the β-Sn matrix. SEM micrographs revealed that increase of the Ag content to 1 wt.% resulted in coarsening of the dendritic plates and diminished the Sn-9Zn eutectic phase in the microstructure. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies revealed that the melting temperature of Sn-8.5Zn-xAg-0.01Al-0.1Ga solder decreased from 199.6 C to 199.2 C with increase of the Ag content in the solder alloy. Both ZnO and SnO2 along with Ag-Zn intermetallic compound (IMC) were formed on the surface when Sn-8.5Zn-0.5Ag-0.01Al-0.1Ga solder was exposed to high-temperature/high-humidity conditions (85 C/85% RH) for 100 h. The thickness of the ZnO phase increased as the Ag content and exposure time were increased. Sn whiskers of various shapes and lengths varying from 2 μm to 5 μm were extruded from the surface when the investigated five-element solder with Ag content varying from 0.5 wt.% to 1 wt.% was exposed to similar temperature/humidity conditions for 250 h. The length and density of the whiskers increased with further increase of the exposure time to 500 h and the Ag content in the solder to 1 wt.%. The Sn whisker growth was driven by the compressive stress in the solder, which was generated due to the volume expansion caused by ZnO and Ag-Zn intermetallic compound formation at the grain boundaries of Sn.

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