The surface morphology and the microstructure of CuInSe 2 precursor films have been investigated by co-electrodeposition with different [Cu 2+ ] concentrations from 2 mM to 4 mM. The characteristic of the precursor films was examined using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), glancing incidence angle X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and micro-Raman spectrometer, respectively. The surface morphology of the precursor films become more smoother and compact with choice of appropriate [Cu 2+ ] concentration (3-3.5 mM) in the electrolyte. The relation between surface morphology and [Cu 2+ ] concentration is also considered in terms of electrodeposition nucleation mechanisms using the mathematical models of Scharifker and Hills. It is suggested that the higher [Cu 2+ ] concentrations can provide more numbers of nucleation sites on the surface of the electrode. Results simulated from the Rietveld refinement method suggest that decreasing d CuSe is related to charge transfer from interstitial copper atoms and can affect the film microstructure. Micro-Raman spectrum also shows that the excess Cu atoms in the precursor films does not contribute significantly to large amounts of secondary phases but rather exists in the crystallite structure as other defect types.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films