Background/Purpose: Pharmacogenetics is a potential driver of the “East Asian paradox,” in which East Asian acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with clopidogrel following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) demonstrate higher levels of platelet reactivity on treatment than Western patients, yet have lower ischemic risk and higher bleeding risk at comparable doses. However, the impact of pharmacogenetics, particularly regarding CYP2C19 genotype, on the pharmacodynamics of P2Y12 inhibitors has not been extensively studied in Taiwanese ACS patients as yet. Methods: CYP2C19 genotyping and pharmacogenetic analysis was conducted on 102 subjects from the Switch Study, a multicenter, single-arm, open-label intervention study that examined the effects on platelet activity and clinical outcomes of switching from clopidogrel (75 mg daily) to low-dose prasugrel (3.75 mg daily) for maintenance DAPT after PCI in 203 Taiwanese ACS patients. Results: Genotyping results revealed that 43.1% were CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers (EM), while 56.9% were reduced metabolizers (RM). After switching to prasugrel, mean P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) values were significantly reduced in both EM and RM populations, while the proportion of high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) patients significantly declined in RM patients. No increase in bleeding risk after switching was observed during follow-up. Multivariate analysis indicated that for RM patients, low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and low hemoglobin were associated with greater HPR risk on clopidogrel, but not after switching to prasugrel. Conclusion: Switching to low-dose prasugrel from clopidogrel reduced mean PRU levels and proportion of HPR patients, with more significant reduction in RM patients.
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