PAH concentrations in ambient air during rice straw open burning and non-burning periods were studied. The dry deposition flux of PAH during non-burning and open burning periods was calculated. During an open burning event, the mean total PAH and total BaP concentrations in the ambient of a rice field were 7206 and 10.3 μg/cu m, respectively, while after the open burning event, the mean total PAH and total BaP were 376 and 1.50 μg/cu m, respectively. The incomplete combustion of biomass during open burning was an important emission source of atmospheric PAH. In the ambient air of a rice field, the mean dry deposition fluxes of total PAH and total BaP were ≈ 60 and 3 times higher than those during the non-burning period, respectively. Open burning is a significant contributor to both PAH concentration levels and PAH dry depositions in ambient air. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 104th AWMA Annual Conference and Exhibition 2011 (Orlando, FL 6/21-24/2011).