Effect of thermocycling-induced stress on properties of orthodontic NiTi wires

Chih Ling Huang, Chen Jung Chang, Ken Chung Chen, Shu Wen Cheng, Jia Kuang Liu, Tzer Min Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Background/purpose: In orthodontic applications, NiTi wires are under continuous bending stress and exposed to fluctuations in temperature over long durations. The sensitivity of NiTi to temperature can have a considerable influence on its mechanical properties. This study investigated the effects of deflected NiTi wire, presented in stress-induced (detwinned) martensite microstructure, combined with thermal cycle on the microstructure and mechanical properties. Materials and methods: We tested four types of as-received orthodontic NiTi: (1) Nitinol Classic (3 M Unitek), (2) Sentalloy (Tomy), (3) 27 °C CuNiTi (Ormco) and (4) 40 °C CuNiTi (Ormco). Each group of specimens was subjected to three different testing conditions: (1) temperature fluctuations (5000 cycles) between 5 and 55 °C, (2) continuous three-point bending force and (3) combination of thermal cycling and bending stress. Results: The specimens that underwent thermocycling as well as loading exhibited a substantial narrowing in stress hysteresis, which may be attributed to crystallinity lower than that of as-received NiTi wires. Reduced crystallinity can manifest in a number of imperfections, such as dislocations and internal stress, as well as a less-organized structure. Micro X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the existence of martensite phase in Sentalloy wires subject to thermal and stress conditions. Under loading conditions, stress-induced martensite of NiTi wires exposed to temperature fluctuations of 5–55 °C also induced cyclic changes in bending stress. In a simulated intra-oral environment, the stability of austenite↔martensite transformation decreased. Conclusion: This study determined that bending stress in conjunction with repeated temperature fluctuations can greatly affect the microstructure and mechanical properties of NiTi wires.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1788-1795
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Dental Sciences
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Oct

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Dentistry


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