Kynurenic acid (KYNA, 4-oxoquinoline-2-carboxylic acid), an intermediate of the trypto-phan metabolism, has been recognized to exert different neuroactive actions; however, the need of how it or its aminoalkylated amide derivative N-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-3-(morpholinomethyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-2-carboxamide (KYNA-A4) exerts any effects on ion currents in excitable cells remains largely unmet. In this study, the investigations of how KYNA and other structur-ally similar KYNA derivatives have any adjustments on different ionic currents in pituitary GH3 cells and hippocampal mHippoE-14 neurons were performed by patch-clamp technique. KYNA or KYNA-A4 increased the amplitude of M-type K+ current (IK(M)) and concomitantly enhanced the activation time course of the current. The EC50 value required for KYNA-or KYNA-A4-stimulated IK(M) was yielded to be 18.1 or 6.4 μM, respectively. The presence of KYNA or KYNA-A4 shifted the relationship of normalized IK(M)-conductance versus membrane potential to more depolarized potential with no change in the gating charge of the current. The voltage-dependent hysteretic area of IK(M) elicited by long-lasting triangular ramp pulse was observed in GH3 cells and that was increased during exposure to KYNA or KYNA-A4. In cell-attached current recordings, addition of KYNA raised the open probability of M-type K+ channels, along with increased mean open time of the channel. Cell exposure to KYNA or KYNA-A4 mildly inhibited delayed-rectifying K+ current; how-ever, neither erg-mediated K+ current, hyperpolarization-activated cation current, nor voltage-gated Na+ current in GH3 cells was changed by KYNA or KYNA-A4. Under whole-cell, current-clamp recordings, exposure to KYNA or KYNA-A4 diminished the frequency of spontaneous action po-tentials; moreover, their reduction in firing frequency was attenuated by linopirdine, yet not by iberiotoxin or apamin. In hippocampal mHippoE-14 neurons, the addition of KYNA also increased the IK(M) amplitude effectively. Taken together, the actions presented herein would be one of the noticeable mechanisms through which they modulate functional activities of excitable cells occur-ring in vivo.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry