Effectiveness of protocolized management for patients sustaining maxillofacial fracture with massive oronasal bleeding: a single-center experience

Fang Chi Wu, Kuo Shu Hung, Yu Wen Lin, Kang Sung, Tsung Han Yang, Chun Hsien Wu, Chih Jung Wang, Yi Ting Yen

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Background: Maxillofacial fractures can lead to massive oronasal bleeding; however, surgical hemostasis and packing procedures can be challenging owing to complex facial anatomy. Only a few studies investigated maxillofacial fractures with massive oronasal hemorrhage. However, thus far, no studies have reported a protocolized management approach for maxillofacial trauma from a single center. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of protocolized management for maxillofacial fractures with oronasal bleeding. Methods: Patients were identified from the National Cheng University Hospital trauma registry from 2010 to 2020. We included patients with a face Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of > 3 and active oronasal bleeding. Patients’ characteristics were compared between the angiography and non-angiography groups and between survivors and nonsurvivors. Results: Forty-nine patients were included. Among them, 34 (69%) underwent angiography, of whom 21 received arterial embolization. Forty-seven patients (96%) successfully achieved hemostasis by adhering to the treatment protocol at our institution. Compared with the non-angiography group, the angiography group had significantly more patients requiring oral intubation (97% vs. 53%, P < 0.001), Glasgow Coma Scale < 9 (GCS; 79% vs. 27%, P < 0.001), head AIS > 3 (65% vs. 13%, P = 0.001), higher Injury Severity Score (ISS; 43 [33–50] vs. 22 [18–27], P < 0.001), higher incidence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; 41% vs. 0%, P = 0.002), higher mortality rate (35% vs. 7%, P = 0.043), and more units of packed red blood cells (PRBC) transfused within 24 h (12 [6–20] vs. 2 [0–4], P < 0.001). The nonsurvivor group had significantly more patients with hypotension (62% vs. 8%; P < 0.001), higher need for CPR (85% vs. 8%; P < 0.001), head AIS > 3 (92% vs. 33%; P < 0.001), skull base fracture (100% vs. 64%; P = 0.011), GCS score < 9 (100% vs. 50%; P = 0.003), higher ISS (50 [43–57] vs. 29 [19–48]; P < 0.001), and more units of PRBC transfused within 24 h (18 [13–22] vs. 6 [2–12]; P = 0.001) than the survivor group. More patients underwent angiography in the nonsurvivor group than in the survivor group (92% vs. 61%; P = 0.043). Among embolized vessels, the internal maxillary artery (65%) was the most common bleeding site. Hypoxic encephalopathy accounted for 92% of deaths. Conclusions: Protocol-guided management effectively optimizes outcomes in patients with maxillofacial bleeding.

Original languageEnglish
Article number60
JournalScandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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