Preparation of dense and phase-pure Ba2Ti9O20 is generally difficult to achieve using a solid-state reaction, due to the presence of several thermodynamically stable compounds in the vicinity of the desired composition. This work investigated the effects of various additives (TiO2, MnO, and ZrO2) on the densification, microstructural evolution, phase stability, and dielectric properties of Ba2Ti9O20. Ceramics with theoretical density of ≥95% were achieved in all cases after sintering at 1300 °C. A pure Ba2Ti9O20 phase was obtained by treating the material with TiO2 additions (≤5.6 wt.%) and sintering at temperatures ranging between 1200 and 1350 °C. Ba2Ti9O20 is a nonstoichiometric compound that can accommodate an excess amount of TiO2. As the temperature was increased, pure Ba2Ti9O20 partially decomposed and formed a mixture of BaTi4O9 and Ba2Ti9O20. The ceramic with excess TiO2 sintered at 1390 °C possessed a higher permittivity and a lower quality factor due to the larger grain size and lower density. For ceramic with the addition of ZrO2 (≤6 wt.%), pure Ba2Ti9O20 phase was obtained after sintering between 1200 and 1390 °C, and the quality factor was improved. The decomposition temperature of the Ba2Ti9O20 phase was greater than 1390 °C. For sintering temperatures ≥1350 °C, the extent of Ba2Ti9O20 phase decreased with MnO additions. As the MnO content reached 0.5 wt.%, only BaTi4O9 and TiO2 phases existed, suggesting a decrease in the decomposition temperature of Ba2Ti9O20 with the addition of MnO. The microwave properties of the ceramics degraded significantly at the sintering temperature of 1390 °C.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering