Effects of fuel injection system and exhaust gas catalytic treatments on PAH emissions from motorcycles

Sheng Lun Lin, Hongjie Zhang, Lin Chi Wang, Yen Yi Lee, Chien Er Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The motorcycles are unignorable near-ground pollutant emission sources that increase the human exposure in the dense area. However, the information of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions under different scenarios of engine and emission control for motorcycle is limited. This study focused on the PAH emissions from two fuel-injection types of motorcycles, including the premixed fuel-injection (PFi) with carburetor and electronic fuel-injection (EFi). Specifically, the effects of throttle opening (TO), secondary air system (SAS), oxygen sensor (OS), oxidation catalytic converter (OCC), and three-way catalytic converter (TWC) on PAH emissions are investigated. Results show that the PAH emission concentrations increase 227–727%, 351–492%, and 155–408% by the increasing TO ratio, unworking SAS, and OS units in both motorcycles. For the PFi engine, the OCC unit is found to be more effective in PAH control (31–89%) than the SAS system (72–80%), especially under low TO operation. For the EFi engine which dominates the motorcycle market recently, the oxygen sensor for more accurate combustion control shows a better PAH reduction (36–76%) than TWC system (21–66%). The ultra-fine particulate phase PAHs, which is hardly removed by catalyst, needs to be further considered. Moreover, the total PAH emission level of the EFi engine is still about ten times higher than that of the PFi. By the annual emission calculation for three densely populated countries, the recent evolution significantly reduces the annual hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions but have unignorable PAH emissions. These emissions continuously affect the human health in the near-ground urban air and need to be considered in the next generation of motorcycle design. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13359-13371
Number of pages13
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jan

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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