Effects of mixology courses and blood lead levels on dental caries among students

Wei Hsiang Chang, Ya Hui Yang, Saou Hsing Liou, Ching Wen Liu, Chiu Ying Chen, Lih Jyh Fuh, Shih Li Huang, Chun Yuh Yang, Trong Neng Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Dental caries can be affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption also increases blood lead levels (BLLs) in humans and BLLs have been correlated with caries. Culinary students participate in mixology courses on either an elective or a mandatory basis. Therefore, we conducted this study to elucidate the effects of mixology courses and elevated BLLs on dental caries among students. Methods: This study had a cross-sectional design. We recruited first-year at one hospitality college and one university in southern Taiwan in September 2004. We applied a questionnaire, collected a blood specimen and performed a dental caries examination for each student. The subjects comprised 133 students who had ever participated in a mixology course (≥2 credits) during high school (exposure group) and 160 who had not participated in such a course (control group). Results: Compared with the control group, the exposure group had a higher prevalence of a DMFT index ≥0 (92.5% versus 81.2%, P = 0.005), a higher DMFT index [5.59 ± 3.53 (mean ± SD) versus 4.21 ± 3.64 teeth, P ≤ 0.001], and a higher BLL (3.12 ± 1.02 versus 2.67 ± 0.83 μg/dl, P ≤ 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, dental caries was significantly associated with participation in a mixology course. Conclusions: Alcohol exposure associated with participation in a mixology course may have an effect on caries in students. These findings suggest that occupational safety and health education should be applied to students participating in mixology courses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)222-227
Number of pages6
JournalCommunity Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Jun

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Dentistry(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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