This study employs an activity-based model to estimate the PM2.5 particle emissions from ships, cargo-handling equipment, and heavy-duty vehicles in the Port of Kaohsiung, Taiwan. External health costs, the index of health impact (IHI), and external environmental costs are assessed to quantify the impact of PM2.5 particle emissions. The mitigation regulations applied in this study are the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution Act (INDC) and the Greenhouse Gas Reduction and Management Act (GGRMA). The provisions in these acts are incorporated into Scenario-INDC and Scenario-GGRMA. The results are as follows: from 2005 to 2017, PM2.5 particle emissions caused an external health cost of 3238.30 DALY (disability-adjusted life year), an IHI value of 8.53%, and environmental cost of USD 2176.04 million annually. For Scenario-INDC and Scenario-GGRMA, it is predicted that PM2.5-related external health costs, IHI value, and external environmental cost will decrease by 927.64 DALY, 2.45%, and USD 608.86 million and by 1736.28 DALY, 4.58%, and USD 1139.84 million, respectively, as compared to BAU-2030 and BAU-2050. The results indicate that compliance with INDC and GGRMA regulations will lead to a significant mitigation of PM2.5 particle emissions, resulting in a significant improvements in air quality and human health in addition to a reduction in environmental costs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Geography, Planning and Development
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law