Effects of thermal comfort and adaptation on park attendance regarding different shading levels and activity types

Tzu Ping Lin, Kang Ting Tsai, Chi Chang Liao, Ying Che Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

124 Citations (Scopus)


Outdoor thermal environments influence thermal adaptation, thereby affecting the utilization of space. To determine the effects of thermal comfort and adaptation on attendance regarding different shading levels and activity types, this study conducted field investigations at a public park located in southern Taiwan, using micrometeorological measurements, estimations of park attendance, and questionnaire surveys on thermal comfort. The results indicate that participants' acceptable range of thermal comfort leads to substantial changes in overall park attendance during different seasons, whereas characteristics of thermal adaptations influence the individual differences of utilization in various ways within diverse spaces. In addition, this study reveals that in unshaded areas within parks, the number of visitors increases following rising thermal conditions during cool seasons, whereas the number of visitors decreases during hot seasons. However, the number of visitors to shaded areas increases with rising thermal conditions in both cool and hot seasons. Because of the possibility and effectiveness of personal behavior adjustments (e.g., decreases in the amount of clothing worn, the wearing of hats, or carrying of an umbrella) in decreasing thermal discomfort, people choose to seek adjustments in external environments. That is, they move from unshaded to shaded areas to relieve their perception of thermal discomfort. The results of this study reveal the importance of shading facilities within parks in the hot climate zone of Taiwan, and can be used as references in future park designs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)599-611
Number of pages13
JournalBuilding and Environment
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Jan

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Building and Construction


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