Effects of torrefaction and water washing on the properties and combustion reactivity of various wastes

Chia Yang Chen, Wei Hsin Chen, Zul Ilham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


On account of increasing waste problems and energy crisis, this study performed waste-to-energy on three kinds of intermediate waste epoxy resins, including the one used for printed circuit board manufacture (WE1), the one from Bisphenol A type epoxy resin (WE2), and the one from purifying process (WE3), using water washing and torrefaction. Biomass and coal were also tested for comparison. The properties, including proximate analysis, elemental analysis, higher heating value (HHV), and combustion characteristics of the feedstocks before/after the pretreatments, were analyzed. Coal and WE3 did not need any pretreatment to be fuel because their HHVs were high already (26.7 and 34.12 MJ/kg, respectively). Torrefaction presented a good modification on fir in that its fixed carbon content increases a lot, resulting in a 42% enhancement in HHV. However, the high thermal resistance of the intermediate waste epoxy resins let them show merely upgrade after torrefaction pretreatment, especially for WE2. After torrefaction, the ash content of it attained 77% that was not suitable as a fuel. On the other hand, water washing displayed good performance on it where its ash content was reduced by over 88% coupled with the 270% increment on HHV. This was attributed to the removal of salt in WE2 during water washing. The TGA/DTG proved that salt inside intermediate waste epoxy resins was diminished after water washing. Furthermore, after water washing, all the combustible contents concentrated at a lower temperature (250°C-500°C) which benefited the real application.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8125-8139
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Energy Research
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2021 May

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of torrefaction and water washing on the properties and combustion reactivity of various wastes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this