Effects on sister chromatid exchange frequency of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 genotype and smoking in vinyl chloride workers

Ruey Hong Wong, Jung Der Wang, Ling Ling Hsieh, Chung Li Du, Tsun Jen Cheng

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47 Citations (Scopus)


Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is a human carcinogen. However, the exact mechanism of carcinogenesis remains unclear. VCM may be metabolized by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Thus workers with inherited variant metabolic enzyme activities may have an altered risk of genotoxicity. This study was designed to investigate which risk factors might affect sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) workers. Study subjects were 44 male workers from three PVC factories. Questionnaires were administered to obtain detailed histories of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, occupations, and medications. SCE frequency in peripheral lymphocytes was determined using a standardized method, and CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and ALDH2 genotypes were identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analysis revealed that smoking status and exposure to VCM were significantly associated with increased SCE frequency. The presence of ALDH2 1-2/2-2 genotypes was also significantly associated with an elevation of SCE frequency (9.5 vs. 8.1, p<0.01). However, CYP2E1, GSTM1 or GSTT1 genotypes were not significantly associated with SCE frequency. When various genotypes were considered together, combination of CYP2E1 c1c2/c2c2 with ALDH2 1-2/2-2 showed an additive effect on SCE frequency. Similar results were also found for the combination of smoking with CYP2E1, or smoking with ALDH2. These results suggest that VCM workers with ALDH2 1-2/2-2 genotypes, who also smoke, may have increased risk of DNA damage. Copyright (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)99-107
Number of pages9
JournalMutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - 1998 Dec 3

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Genetics
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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