Background: Recent study showed that the combination of erlotinib and bevacizumab had better disease control than erlotinib monotherapy in patients with advanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, there is lack of real-world evidence for this therapeutic regimen. We aimed to compare outcomes between patients with EGFR mutant NSCLC treated with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and bevacizumab and those treated with EGFR-TKI alone in a real-world setting. Methods: Patients with advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC who received first-line EGFR-TKI in a tertiary referral center from October 1, 2013 to December 31, 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. We performed 1:2 propensity score-matching: one EGFR-TKI and bevacizumab recipient with two patients who received EGFR-TKI alone. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated using the Kaplan–Meier method. The prognostic factors were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results: Total 313 patients were enrolled. After propensity score matching, 45 patients who received first-line EGFR-TKI and bevacizumab and 89 patients who received EGFR-TKI alone were analyzed. The combination group showed improved PFS (17.0 vs. 11.0 months; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.48; p = 0.002) compared to the monotherapy group. In subgroup analysis of patients with an L858R mutation, the combination group showed longer PFS (23.1 vs. 10.7 months; HR = 0.40; p = 0.011) and OS (not reached vs. 40.6 months; HR = 0.27; p = 0.040) than the EGFR-TKI monotherapy group. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the combination of EGFR-TKI and bevacizumab could improve PFS in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC. In patients harboring L858R mutation, the combination therapy provides better OS than TKI alone.
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