Spintronics is regarded as a promising solution for resolving the major challenging issues related to the scaling of Si-based complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology as it offers the advantages of combing the spin and charge degrees of freedom. After decades of progress, the quintessence to achieve practical low-dissipation applications lies in the ability to manipulate magnetic states by electric field via several different physical mechanisms. Among them, the emergence of the spin-orbit coupling engineering has been shown to dramatically reduce energy dissipation and improve the performance as well as to multiply spintronic device possibilities and functionalities for a new generation of ultralow-power nonvolatile spintronic systems. This article provides a review of the current development including fundamental physics and experimental implementations of electric-field-controlled ferromagnetism in dilute magnetic semiconductors, voltage control of magnetic anisotropy, spin-orbit-torque-assisted magnetization switching, and antiferromagnetic (AFM) material-based spin-orbitronic systems. We provide an assessment in terms of scaling of energy, speed, and size. Finally, we offer an outlook of electric-field-controlled spintronic applications, particularly in view of their integration with CMOS to form hybrid spintronic circuits.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computer Science(all)
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering