An electrode made of loofah sponge derived activated carbon supported on nickel foam (AC/Ni) was successfully fabricated and used to remove ammonium ion (NH 4 + ) from aqueous solution. A multilayer adsorption isotherm was used to describe ammonium electro-sorption on AC/Ni electrodes at different temperature, initial NH 4 + concentration, and electrical field. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) results suggested that the electrical capacitance of AC/Ni electrodes, with the AC being prepared without preheating (OAC) or with low temperature heating (i.e., 300 AC), were higher than those prepared at high preheating temperature (i.e., 400 AC and 500 AC). Increasing the electro-sorption temperature from 10 to 50 °C decreased the monolayer NH 4 + adsorption capacity from 5 to ca. 2–3 mg-N g −1 , respectively. Background electrolyte, namely, sodium sulfate, exhibited significant competitive effect on the adsorption of ammonium ion at sodium ion concentration > 10 −2 M. The activation energy and heat of adsorption were 9–23.2 kJ mol −1 and −3.7–−10.7 kJ mol −1 , respectively, indicating a physisorption and exothermic adsorption characteristics. Based on the kinetics and thermodynamics analysis, there was slight increase in the activation energy with elevating preheating temperature, which increased the quantity of micro-pores and surface heterogeneity of the AC materials. Overall, results clearly demonstrated that carbon pyrolysis played a role on the capacitive charging behaviors of electrodes and the efficiency of NH 4 + electro-sorption on the AC/Ni electrodes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal