In this paper, we have demonstrated a successful electroplating process of nickel (Ni) in a sulfamate electrolyte bath at ultra low electrolytic temperatures of 273-278 K. The potentiostatic mode is essential for the electroplating process rather than galvanostatic mode. The reason is that diffusion-limited current can be easily obtained by applying a specific potential which is higher than reduction potential. On the contrary, galvanostatic mode can not identify the diffusion-limited current and the reduction will suspend while the setting current is higher than diffusion-limited current ranged in hundreds of μA. The microstructure, morphology and hardness of the Ni electrodeposits were characterized using grazing incidence x-ray diffractometer, atomic force microscopy and nano-indentation test were performed. The hardness of Ni film was much enhanced to around 6.37 GPa at 273 K to 6.18 GPa at 278 K compared with that around 4.11 GPa at 288 K to 4.01 GPa at 293 K. The normal hardness of pure nickel is about 4 GPa. The enhanced hardness of Ni at ultra low temperature is attributed to both mechanisms of reduced grain size strengthening and residual compressive stress hardening.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Hardware and Architecture
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering