Electroplating of nickel films at ultra low electrolytic temperature

Chen Kuei Chung, W. T. Chang, S. T. Hung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we have demonstrated a successful electroplating process of nickel (Ni) in a sulfamate electrolyte bath at ultra low electrolytic temperatures of 273-278 K. The potentiostatic mode is essential for the electroplating process rather than galvanostatic mode. The reason is that diffusion-limited current can be easily obtained by applying a specific potential which is higher than reduction potential. On the contrary, galvanostatic mode can not identify the diffusion-limited current and the reduction will suspend while the setting current is higher than diffusion-limited current ranged in hundreds of μA. The microstructure, morphology and hardness of the Ni electrodeposits were characterized using grazing incidence x-ray diffractometer, atomic force microscopy and nano-indentation test were performed. The hardness of Ni film was much enhanced to around 6.37 GPa at 273 K to 6.18 GPa at 278 K compared with that around 4.11 GPa at 288 K to 4.01 GPa at 293 K. The normal hardness of pure nickel is about 4 GPa. The enhanced hardness of Ni at ultra low temperature is attributed to both mechanisms of reduced grain size strengthening and residual compressive stress hardening.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1353-1359
Number of pages7
JournalMicrosystem Technologies
Issue number8-9
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Aug

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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