Electrowetting-driven liquid lens for ultrasound: Enabling controllable focal length and flexible beam steering

Zong Han Hsieh, Ching Hsiang Fan, Yeu Chern Lin, Chih Kuang Yeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Focused ultrasound is an increasingly popular non-invasive treatment modality. Still, its fixed focal point requires an array ultrasound transducer or scanning system to cover different therapeutic scenarios. To address this limitation, we developed an electrically-controlled liquid lens that enables dynamic beam focusing and steering of the incident plane ultrasound beam. The lens was carefully optimized for low-energy attenuation and low-voltage driving. We evaluated the performance of the lens using a homemade 5.5-MHz planar transducer with a 7.5-mm aperture. Our results demonstrate that the planar ultrasound beam can be adjusted to a focused beam with a focal length from 27 mm to 32 mm within 1 s by increasing the electric input (0–60 V) to the lens. Additionally, the beam angle of the ultrasound is tunable from −5 to 5° by adjusting the charge distribution on the lens. Our design enables real-time, fast-response, on-demand changing of focal length and beam angle for a single-element planar transducer. Our study presents a promising technology for altering the ultrasound beam of a planar single-element transducer for different ultrasound applications. The development of this electrically-controlled liquid lens has the potential to enhance the efficacy of focused ultrasound treatment and improve patient outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107147
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Dec

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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