Emission of carbonyl compounds from cooking oil fumes in the night market areas

Danielle E. Que, How Ran Chao, Yi Chyun Hsu, Kangping Cui, Shida Chen, Lemmuel L. Tayo, Rachelle D. Arcega, Ying I. Tsai, I. Cheng Lu, Lin Chi Wang, Li Hao Young, Kwong Leung J. Yu, Chane Yu Lai, Wen-Che Hou, Sheng Lun Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Cooking oil fumes (CF) coming from night market stalls exhaust contain substantial amounts of air pollutants such as carbonyl compounds that may contribute to outdoor air pollution and may have adverse health effects on the Taiwanese population. Carbonyl emission characteristics depend on several factors, which include but are not limited to, the cooking style and food material being used. The current study evaluated carbonyl compound emissions from two scenarios: a standard kitchen cooking classroom with a stack gas tunnel and night market food stalls. The different cooking styles and food types cooked using a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stove, such as grilled chicken with (GCS) and without sauce (GC), mixed barbecue with sauce (MBS), grilled vegetables with sauce (GVS), stir-fried oyster omelet (OM), fried Taiwanese chicken nuggets (FN) in the kitchen cooking classroom, and grilled chicken with (GCS) and without sauce (GC), stir-fried oyster omelet (OM), grilled vegetables with sauce (GVS), and fried steak (FS) in the night market were evaluated for carbonyl carbon emissions. OM from the kitchen classroom and GCS from the night market showed the highest mean total carbonyl compound concentrations (1850 ± 682 ppb and 1840 ppb). Formaldehyde was found to be the most predominant carbonyl compound, with contribution percentages ranging from 70.9–99.58% of the total carbonyl emission factors in CFs. Grilled vegetables with sauce had the highest emission factor magnitude of 274 µg kg–1 wt. Factors such as the addition of sauce and grilling were also observed to increase carbonyl compound emissions. Corresponding health risks of carbonyl compounds in CFs for the night market vendors were also assessed. All values for cancer risk (R) were above the standard R value for workplace exposure, and HQ values were all greater than 1, suggesting a high risk for adverse health effects. Although our reported values were relatively high due to our sampling conditions, our study was first to be conducted in Taiwan and holds an important contribution to the global existing data of carbonyl compound emissions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1556-1578
Number of pages23
JournalAerosol and Air Quality Research
Volume19
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jul 1

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carbonyl compound
Carbonyl compounds
Fumes
Cooking
Oils
market
oil
Kitchens
Vegetables
vegetable
Gas stoves
Health
liquefied petroleum gas
food market
Ventilation exhausts
Air Pollutants
food
Health risks
Liquefied petroleum gas
carbon emission

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution

Cite this

Que, D. E., Chao, H. R., Hsu, Y. C., Cui, K., Chen, S., Tayo, L. L., ... Lin, S. L. (2019). Emission of carbonyl compounds from cooking oil fumes in the night market areas. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 19(7), 1556-1578. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2019.06.0289
Que, Danielle E. ; Chao, How Ran ; Hsu, Yi Chyun ; Cui, Kangping ; Chen, Shida ; Tayo, Lemmuel L. ; Arcega, Rachelle D. ; Tsai, Ying I. ; Lu, I. Cheng ; Wang, Lin Chi ; Young, Li Hao ; Yu, Kwong Leung J. ; Lai, Chane Yu ; Hou, Wen-Che ; Lin, Sheng Lun. / Emission of carbonyl compounds from cooking oil fumes in the night market areas. In: Aerosol and Air Quality Research. 2019 ; Vol. 19, No. 7. pp. 1556-1578.
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abstract = "Cooking oil fumes (CF) coming from night market stalls exhaust contain substantial amounts of air pollutants such as carbonyl compounds that may contribute to outdoor air pollution and may have adverse health effects on the Taiwanese population. Carbonyl emission characteristics depend on several factors, which include but are not limited to, the cooking style and food material being used. The current study evaluated carbonyl compound emissions from two scenarios: a standard kitchen cooking classroom with a stack gas tunnel and night market food stalls. The different cooking styles and food types cooked using a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stove, such as grilled chicken with (GCS) and without sauce (GC), mixed barbecue with sauce (MBS), grilled vegetables with sauce (GVS), stir-fried oyster omelet (OM), fried Taiwanese chicken nuggets (FN) in the kitchen cooking classroom, and grilled chicken with (GCS) and without sauce (GC), stir-fried oyster omelet (OM), grilled vegetables with sauce (GVS), and fried steak (FS) in the night market were evaluated for carbonyl carbon emissions. OM from the kitchen classroom and GCS from the night market showed the highest mean total carbonyl compound concentrations (1850 ± 682 ppb and 1840 ppb). Formaldehyde was found to be the most predominant carbonyl compound, with contribution percentages ranging from 70.9–99.58{\%} of the total carbonyl emission factors in CFs. Grilled vegetables with sauce had the highest emission factor magnitude of 274 µg kg–1 wt. Factors such as the addition of sauce and grilling were also observed to increase carbonyl compound emissions. Corresponding health risks of carbonyl compounds in CFs for the night market vendors were also assessed. All values for cancer risk (R) were above the standard R value for workplace exposure, and HQ values were all greater than 1, suggesting a high risk for adverse health effects. Although our reported values were relatively high due to our sampling conditions, our study was first to be conducted in Taiwan and holds an important contribution to the global existing data of carbonyl compound emissions.",
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Que, DE, Chao, HR, Hsu, YC, Cui, K, Chen, S, Tayo, LL, Arcega, RD, Tsai, YI, Lu, IC, Wang, LC, Young, LH, Yu, KLJ, Lai, CY, Hou, W-C & Lin, SL 2019, 'Emission of carbonyl compounds from cooking oil fumes in the night market areas', Aerosol and Air Quality Research, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 1556-1578. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2019.06.0289

Emission of carbonyl compounds from cooking oil fumes in the night market areas. / Que, Danielle E.; Chao, How Ran; Hsu, Yi Chyun; Cui, Kangping; Chen, Shida; Tayo, Lemmuel L.; Arcega, Rachelle D.; Tsai, Ying I.; Lu, I. Cheng; Wang, Lin Chi; Young, Li Hao; Yu, Kwong Leung J.; Lai, Chane Yu; Hou, Wen-Che; Lin, Sheng Lun.

In: Aerosol and Air Quality Research, Vol. 19, No. 7, 01.07.2019, p. 1556-1578.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Chao, How Ran

AU - Hsu, Yi Chyun

AU - Cui, Kangping

AU - Chen, Shida

AU - Tayo, Lemmuel L.

AU - Arcega, Rachelle D.

AU - Tsai, Ying I.

AU - Lu, I. Cheng

AU - Wang, Lin Chi

AU - Young, Li Hao

AU - Yu, Kwong Leung J.

AU - Lai, Chane Yu

AU - Hou, Wen-Che

AU - Lin, Sheng Lun

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