Emissions of Nanoparticles and Gaseous Material from 3D Printer Operation

Yuna Kim, Chungsik Yoon, Seunghon Ham, Jihoon Park, Songha Kim, Ohhun Kwon, Peng-Chi Tsai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

50 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study evaluated the emissions characteristics of hazardous material during fused deposition modeling type 3D printing. Particulate and gaseous materials were measured before, during, and after 3D printing in an exposure chamber. One ABS and two PLA (PLA1 and PLA2) cartridges were tested three times. For online monitoring, a scanning mobility particle sizer, light scattering instrument, and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) monitor were employed and a polycarbonate filter and various adsorbent tubes were used for offline sampling. The particle concentration of 3D printing using ABS material was 33-38 times higher than when PLA materials were used. Most particles were nanosize (<100 nm) during ABS (96%) and PLA1 (98%) use, but only 12% were nanosize for PLA2. The emissions rates were 1.61 × 1010 ea/min and 1.67 × 1011 ea/g cartridge with the ABS cartridge and 4.27-4.89 × 108 ea/min and 3.77-3.91 × 109 ea/g cartridge with the PLA cartridge. TVOCs were also emitted when the ABS was used (GM; 155 ppb, GSD; 3.4), but not when the PLA cartridges were used. Our results suggest that more research and sophisticated control methods, including the use of less harmful materials, blocking emitted containments, and using filters or adsorbents, should be implemented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12044-12053
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume49
Issue number20
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Oct 20

Fingerprint

3D printers
Nanoparticles
Printing
polycarbonate
Adsorbents
Hazardous Substances
Volatile Organic Compounds
filter
Light scattering
light scattering
containment
volatile organic compound
Sampling
Scanning
nanoparticle
material
Monitoring
sampling
monitoring
modeling

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Kim, Yuna ; Yoon, Chungsik ; Ham, Seunghon ; Park, Jihoon ; Kim, Songha ; Kwon, Ohhun ; Tsai, Peng-Chi. / Emissions of Nanoparticles and Gaseous Material from 3D Printer Operation. In: Environmental Science and Technology. 2015 ; Vol. 49, No. 20. pp. 12044-12053.
@article{635f206ff22548a9b9a2ed57cccd6b81,
title = "Emissions of Nanoparticles and Gaseous Material from 3D Printer Operation",
abstract = "This study evaluated the emissions characteristics of hazardous material during fused deposition modeling type 3D printing. Particulate and gaseous materials were measured before, during, and after 3D printing in an exposure chamber. One ABS and two PLA (PLA1 and PLA2) cartridges were tested three times. For online monitoring, a scanning mobility particle sizer, light scattering instrument, and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) monitor were employed and a polycarbonate filter and various adsorbent tubes were used for offline sampling. The particle concentration of 3D printing using ABS material was 33-38 times higher than when PLA materials were used. Most particles were nanosize (<100 nm) during ABS (96{\%}) and PLA1 (98{\%}) use, but only 12{\%} were nanosize for PLA2. The emissions rates were 1.61 × 1010 ea/min and 1.67 × 1011 ea/g cartridge with the ABS cartridge and 4.27-4.89 × 108 ea/min and 3.77-3.91 × 109 ea/g cartridge with the PLA cartridge. TVOCs were also emitted when the ABS was used (GM; 155 ppb, GSD; 3.4), but not when the PLA cartridges were used. Our results suggest that more research and sophisticated control methods, including the use of less harmful materials, blocking emitted containments, and using filters or adsorbents, should be implemented.",
author = "Yuna Kim and Chungsik Yoon and Seunghon Ham and Jihoon Park and Songha Kim and Ohhun Kwon and Peng-Chi Tsai",
year = "2015",
month = "10",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1021/acs.est.5b02805",
language = "English",
volume = "49",
pages = "12044--12053",
journal = "Environmental Science & Technology",
issn = "0013-936X",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "20",

}

Emissions of Nanoparticles and Gaseous Material from 3D Printer Operation. / Kim, Yuna; Yoon, Chungsik; Ham, Seunghon; Park, Jihoon; Kim, Songha; Kwon, Ohhun; Tsai, Peng-Chi.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 49, No. 20, 20.10.2015, p. 12044-12053.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Emissions of Nanoparticles and Gaseous Material from 3D Printer Operation

AU - Kim, Yuna

AU - Yoon, Chungsik

AU - Ham, Seunghon

AU - Park, Jihoon

AU - Kim, Songha

AU - Kwon, Ohhun

AU - Tsai, Peng-Chi

PY - 2015/10/20

Y1 - 2015/10/20

N2 - This study evaluated the emissions characteristics of hazardous material during fused deposition modeling type 3D printing. Particulate and gaseous materials were measured before, during, and after 3D printing in an exposure chamber. One ABS and two PLA (PLA1 and PLA2) cartridges were tested three times. For online monitoring, a scanning mobility particle sizer, light scattering instrument, and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) monitor were employed and a polycarbonate filter and various adsorbent tubes were used for offline sampling. The particle concentration of 3D printing using ABS material was 33-38 times higher than when PLA materials were used. Most particles were nanosize (<100 nm) during ABS (96%) and PLA1 (98%) use, but only 12% were nanosize for PLA2. The emissions rates were 1.61 × 1010 ea/min and 1.67 × 1011 ea/g cartridge with the ABS cartridge and 4.27-4.89 × 108 ea/min and 3.77-3.91 × 109 ea/g cartridge with the PLA cartridge. TVOCs were also emitted when the ABS was used (GM; 155 ppb, GSD; 3.4), but not when the PLA cartridges were used. Our results suggest that more research and sophisticated control methods, including the use of less harmful materials, blocking emitted containments, and using filters or adsorbents, should be implemented.

AB - This study evaluated the emissions characteristics of hazardous material during fused deposition modeling type 3D printing. Particulate and gaseous materials were measured before, during, and after 3D printing in an exposure chamber. One ABS and two PLA (PLA1 and PLA2) cartridges were tested three times. For online monitoring, a scanning mobility particle sizer, light scattering instrument, and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) monitor were employed and a polycarbonate filter and various adsorbent tubes were used for offline sampling. The particle concentration of 3D printing using ABS material was 33-38 times higher than when PLA materials were used. Most particles were nanosize (<100 nm) during ABS (96%) and PLA1 (98%) use, but only 12% were nanosize for PLA2. The emissions rates were 1.61 × 1010 ea/min and 1.67 × 1011 ea/g cartridge with the ABS cartridge and 4.27-4.89 × 108 ea/min and 3.77-3.91 × 109 ea/g cartridge with the PLA cartridge. TVOCs were also emitted when the ABS was used (GM; 155 ppb, GSD; 3.4), but not when the PLA cartridges were used. Our results suggest that more research and sophisticated control methods, including the use of less harmful materials, blocking emitted containments, and using filters or adsorbents, should be implemented.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84945311698&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84945311698&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/acs.est.5b02805

DO - 10.1021/acs.est.5b02805

M3 - Article

C2 - 26402038

AN - SCOPUS:84945311698

VL - 49

SP - 12044

EP - 12053

JO - Environmental Science & Technology

JF - Environmental Science & Technology

SN - 0013-936X

IS - 20

ER -