Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from stack gases of electric arc furnaces and secondary aluminum smelters

Wei Shan Lee, Guo Ping Chang-Chien, Lin Chi Wang, Wen Jhy Lee, Kuen Yuh Wu, Perng Jy Tsai

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59 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigates the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from four electric arc furnaces (EAFs) and eight secondary aluminum smelters (secondary ALSs) in Taiwan. The mean PCDD/F International-Toxicity Equivalents (I-TEQ) concentrations in the stack gases of these EAFs and secondary ALSs are 0.28 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (relative standard deviation [RSD = 100%) and 3.3 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (RSD = 260%), respectively. The high RSDs, especially for those obtained from secondary ALSs, could be caused by the intrinsic differences in their involved feeding materials, furnace operating conditions, and air pollution control devices. The mean I-TEQ emission factor of PCDD/Fs for EAFs (1.8 μg I-TEQ/tonne-feedstock) is lower than that for secondary ALSs (37 μm g I-TEQ/tonne-feedstock). This result might be because the involved furnace temperatures for secondary ALSs (650–750 °C) are lower than those for EAFs (1600–1700 °C), resulting in the deterioration of the combustion condition, leading to the formation of PCDD/Fs during the industrial process. This study found that the total PCDD/F emissions from EAFs (20 g I-TEQ/yr) and secondary ALSs (18 g I-TEQ/yr) are ∼27, 53, and ∼24, 49 times higher than those from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs; 0.74 g ITEQ/yr) and medical waste incinerators (MWIs; 0.37 g I-TEQ/yr), respectively; while those are 44 and 40% of total PCDD/F emission from sinter plants (45 g I-TEQ/yr), respectively. Considering a more stringent emission limit has been applied to waste incinerators (0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm3) in Taiwan lately, the results suggest that the control of the emissions from metallurgical processes has become the most important issue for reducing the total PCDD/F emission from industrial sectors to the ambient environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)219-226
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Air and Waste Management Association
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Feb

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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