Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from the stack flue gases, fly ashes and bottom ashes of various stationary sources were investigated. The mean total PCDD/F I-TEQ concentration of flue gas ranged from 0.00681 to 0.703 ng I-TEQ/Nm3. However, the emission factor of PCDD/F from various incinerators was 0.00827 to 3.50 μg I-TEQ/ton, whereas it was 5.36 μg I-TEQ/body for a crematory (CM). In addition, the mean total PCDD/F I-TEQ content in fly ash from an electric arc furnace (EAF) and a secondary aluminium smelter (secondary ALS) were 74.0, and 49.9 ng I-TEQ/kg, respectively, whereas they are 21.3 and 0.494 ng I-TEQ/kg for bottom ash. Meanwhile, the removal efficiency of PCDD/F by bag filters from EAF was -44.4% which is attributed to the "memory effect". The indicatory PCDD/Fs of EAF, and secondary ALS have the same congeners (1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDF, 2,3,7,8-TeCDF, and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF). In addition, CM, joss paper-A (JP-A) and joss paper-B (JP-B) incinerators have similar indicatory PCDD/F (2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF, OCDF, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, and OCDD). The high contribution of total PCDD/F is from fly ash (61.1-95.3%) for metallurgical facilities (EAF, secondary ALS), whereas 99.9% contribution of stack flue gas is from JP-A and JP-B. In conclusion, continually monitoring various PCDD/F emission sources is necessary to understand current PCDD/F emission (flue gas, fly/bottom ash) and the related removal efficiency of existing air pollution control devices. Information about both emission factors of PCDD/Fs and indicatory PCDD/F congeners are useful for the establishment of control strategies and for use as fingerprints with regard to the dominant congeners from different emission sources.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Chemistry