Chlortetracycline (CTC) is a tetracycline derivative antibiotic that has been widely used in the livestock industry for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. Effective measures should be taken to decrease the environmental risks associated with CTC-rich waste. Biochar produced by biomass waste showed great potential for organic contaminants removal by adsorption and catalytic degradation. This study prepared iron oxide-modified coffee grounds biochar (CGF) at different temperatures for enhanced CTC removal by adsorption and degradation. The main mechanism for CTC removal was found to be electrostatic interaction. In addition, pore diffusion, hydrogen bonds, and π-π bonds also contributed to CTC adsorption. Maximum CTC adsorption capacity was 223.63 mg/g for CGF800 (CGF prepared at 800 °C pyrolysis). The free radical content of CGF600 (CFG prepared at 600 °C pyrolysis) was higher than CGF800, and there were no significant advantages in using biochar prepared at a higher temperature for persulfate activation. The ion mass-to-charge ratio (M/z) is used to describe the ratio of mass to charge of an ion or peak, which can infer compound structure. The structure of CTC degradation products was analyzed by UPLC-MS, and the M/z values were determined as 444, 273, and 154. Thus, pyrolysis of coffee grounds at higher temperatures increased CTC adsorption capacity, and CGF can indirectly assist in CTC degradation by persulfate activation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis