This article reviews an emerging wireless information and power transfer (WIPT) technique with an emphasis on its performance enhancement employing multi-antenna techniques. Compared to traditional wireless information transmission, WIPT faces numerous challenges. First, it is more susceptible to channel fading and path loss, resulting in a much shorter power transfer distance. Second, it gives rise to the issue of how to balance spectral efficiency for information transmission and energy efficiency for power transfer in order to obtain an optimal tradeoff. Third, there exists a security issue for information transmission in order to improve power transfer efficiency. In this context, multi-antenna techniques, e.g. energy beamforming, are introduced to solve these problems by exploiting spatial degree of freedom. This article provides a tutorial on various aspects of multi-antenna based WIPT techniques, with a focus on tackling the challenges by parameter optimization and protocol design. In particular, we investigate the WIPT tradeoffs based on two typical multi-antenna techniques: the limited feedback multi-antenna technique for short-distance transfer; and the large-scale multiple-input multiple-output (LS-MIMO, also known as massive MIMO) technique for long-distance transfer. Finally, simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Computer Science Applications
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering