Oxide- and defect-free metal/semiconductor interface is important to improve Ohmic contact for the suppression of electron scattering and the avoidance of an extrinsic surface state in estimating the barrier of the Schottky contact at the nanodevice interface. This study reports the growth mechanism of Zn quantum dots coherently grown on Si(1 1 1) and the physical phenomena of the crystalline, nonlinear optics, and the chemical states of Zn quantum dots. Epitaxial Zn quantum dots were coherently formed on a non-oxide Si(1 1 1) surface through the liquid- to solid-phase transformation as a result of pattern matching between the Zn(0 0 2) and Si(1 1 1) surfaces. The growth mechanism of constrained Zn quantum dots grown through strategic magnetron radio frequency sputtering is complex. Some factors, such as substrate temperature, hydrogen gas flow, and negative DC bias, influence the configuration of epitaxial Zn quantum dots. In particular, hydrogen gas plays an important role in reducing the ZnO+ and native oxide that is bombarded by accelerated ions, thereby enhancing the Zn ion surface diffusion. The reduction reaction can be inspected by distinguishing the chemical states of ZnO/Zn quantum dots from natural oxidation or the states of Zn 3d through the analysis of x-ray absorption near the edge structure spectrum. The complex growth mechanism can be systematically understood by analyzing a noncancelled anisotropic 3 m dipole from reflective second harmonic generation and inspecting the evolution between the Zn(0 0 2) and Zn(1 1 1) peaks of the collective ZnO/Zn quantum dots in synchrotron XRD.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Acoustics and Ultrasonics
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films