Objectives: To determine if the intravenous co-administration of equal volumes of lidocaine and nalbuphine, with undiluted normal saline, prevents injection pain caused by nalbuphine. Methods: Eighty adult patients who were scheduled for minor surgeries under general anesthesia delivered via a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, single-blind clinical trial. In the saline group (control) (n = 40), 1 mL (10 mg) nalbuphine was diluted with 9 mL normal saline. In the lidocaine group (experimental) (n = 40), 1 mL (10 mg) nalbuphine was diluted with 1 mL lidocaine (20 mg). The two respective nalbuphine solutions were injected into the cephalic vein at a rate of 20 mL/minute (0.33 mL/second). Pain scores were categorized into five grades. Pain responses upon intravenous injection of nalbuphine, site of cannulation, size of the catheter, and hemodynamic responses to nalbuphine were also recorded. Results: Overall, the median pain score of patients in the lidocaine group was lower than that of the saline group (p < 0.001). In addition, the incidence of injection pain was lower in the lidocaine group than the saline group (2.5% vs. 30%, p = 0.001). Conclusion: A solution of equal volumes of lidocaine and nalbuphine can decrease intravenous nalbuphine-induced injection pain.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine