Establishment of regional concentration–duration– frequency relationships of air pollution: A case study for PM2.5

Hone Jay Chu, Muhammad Zeeshan Ali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Poor air quality usually leads to PM2.5 warnings and affects human health. The impact of frequency and duration of extreme air quality has received considerable attention. The extreme concentration of air pollution is related to its duration and annual frequency of occurrence known as concentration–duration–frequency (CDF) relationships. However, the CDF formulas are empirical equations representing the relationship between the maximum concentration as a dependent variable and other parameters of interest, i.e., duration and annual frequency of occurrence. As a basis for deducing the extreme CDF relationship of PM2.5, the function assumes that the extreme concentration is related to the duration and frequency. In addition, the spatial pattern estimation of extreme PM2.5 is identified. The regional CDF identifies the regional extreme concentration with a specified duration and return period. The spatial pattern of extreme air pollution over 8 h duration shows the hotspots of air quality in the central and southwestern areas. Central and southwestern Taiwan is at high risk of exposure to air pollution. Use of the regional CDF analysis is highly recommended for efficient design of air quality management and control.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1419
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Feb 2

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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