Evaluation of the Learning Curve in Robotic Nipple-sparing Mastectomy for Breast Cancer

Zhu Jun Loh, Tzu Yi Wu, Fiona Tsui Fen Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Background: This study discusses the preliminary results of robotic nipple sparing mastectomy (R-NSM) in patients with breast cancer and analyzes the learning curve of the same surgeon in a single medical center. Patients and Method: Patients with breast cancer from a single center who received R-NSM between 2018 to 2020 were recruited for clinical and pathologic tumor characteristics including family history, grade, type of tumor, treatment, and outcome. The learning curve for R-NSM was analyzed by using cumulative sum (CUSUM). Results: A total of 85 R-NSM procedures from 78 patients were evaluated. In the CUSUM plot analysis of the learning curve, a significant decrease in time for mastectomy, reconstruction, and total operation appeared in the 22nd, 23rd, and 26th procedures, respectively. Patients’ body weight, gel implant size, and specimen weight had significant correlations with the time for mastectomy. Four (5.6%) patients had nipple partial ischemia, and 1 (1.4%) had total nipple necrosis. The mean follow-up was 11.4 ± 6.2 months; only 1 patient showed recurrence. Conclusion: Robotic breast surgery is a feasible method with good cosmetic outcome under suitable patient selection. Oncologic safety is not a reason to stop its development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e279-e284
JournalClinical breast cancer
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jun

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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