Evo-Devo of amniote integuments and appendages

Ping Wu, Lianhai Hou, Maksim Plikus, Michael Hughes, Jeffrey Scehnet, Sanong Suksaweang, Randall B. Widelitz, Ting Xin Jiang, Cheng Ming Chuong

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

148 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Integuments form the boundary between an organism and the environment. The evolution of novel developmental mechanisms in integuments and appendages allows animals to live in diverse ecological environments. Here we focus on amniotes. The major achievement for reptile skin is an adaptation to the land with the formation of a successful barrier. The stratum corneum enables this barrier to prevent water loss from the skin and allowed amphibian / reptile ancestors to go onto the land. Overlapping scales and production of β-keratins provide strong protection. Epidermal invagination led to the formation of avian feather and mammalian hair follicles in the dermis. Both adopted a proximal - distal growth mode which maintains endothermy. Feathers form hierarchical branches which produce the vane that makes flight possible. Recent discoveries of feathered dinosaurs in China inspire new thinking on the origin of feathers. In the laboratory, epithelial - mesenchymal recombinations and molecular mis-expressions were carried out to test the plasticity of epithelial organ formation. We review the work on the transformation of scales into feathers, conversion between barbs and rachis and the production of "chicken teeth". In mammals, tilting the balance of the BMP pathway in K14 noggin transgenic mice alters the number, size and phenotypes of different ectodermal organs, making investigators rethink the distinction between morpho-regulation and pathological changes. Models on the evolution of feathers and hairs from reptile integuments are discussed. A hypothetical Evo-Devo space where diverse integument appendages can be placed according to complex phenotypes and novel developmental mechanisms is presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)249-270
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Developmental Biology
Volume48
Issue number2-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Jul 6

Fingerprint

Feathers
Reptiles
Dinosaurs
Phenotype
Skin
Hair Follicle
Amphibians
Dermis
Keratins
Hair
Cornea
Transgenic Mice
Genetic Recombination
Mammals
Chickens
China
Tooth
Research Personnel
Water
Growth

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Embryology
  • Developmental Biology

Cite this

Wu, P., Hou, L., Plikus, M., Hughes, M., Scehnet, J., Suksaweang, S., ... Chuong, C. M. (2004). Evo-Devo of amniote integuments and appendages. International Journal of Developmental Biology, 48(2-3), 249-270. https://doi.org/10.1387/ijdb.15272390
Wu, Ping ; Hou, Lianhai ; Plikus, Maksim ; Hughes, Michael ; Scehnet, Jeffrey ; Suksaweang, Sanong ; Widelitz, Randall B. ; Jiang, Ting Xin ; Chuong, Cheng Ming. / Evo-Devo of amniote integuments and appendages. In: International Journal of Developmental Biology. 2004 ; Vol. 48, No. 2-3. pp. 249-270.
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Wu, P, Hou, L, Plikus, M, Hughes, M, Scehnet, J, Suksaweang, S, Widelitz, RB, Jiang, TX & Chuong, CM 2004, 'Evo-Devo of amniote integuments and appendages', International Journal of Developmental Biology, vol. 48, no. 2-3, pp. 249-270. https://doi.org/10.1387/ijdb.15272390

Evo-Devo of amniote integuments and appendages. / Wu, Ping; Hou, Lianhai; Plikus, Maksim; Hughes, Michael; Scehnet, Jeffrey; Suksaweang, Sanong; Widelitz, Randall B.; Jiang, Ting Xin; Chuong, Cheng Ming.

In: International Journal of Developmental Biology, Vol. 48, No. 2-3, 06.07.2004, p. 249-270.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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