Objective: This study applied an ecological-based analysis aimed to evaluate on a global scale the association between greenness exposure and suicide mortality. Methods: Suicide mortality data provided by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were employed. The generalized additive mixed model was applied to evaluate with an adjustment of covariates the association between greenness and suicide mortality. Sensitivity tests and positive-negative controls also were used to examine less overt insights. Subgroup analyses were then conducted to investigate the effects of greenness on suicide mortality among various conditions. Results: The main finding of this study indicates a negative association between greenness exposure and suicide mortality, as greenness significantly decreases the risk of suicide mortality per interquartile unit increment of NDVI (relative risk = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59–0.81). Further, sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the findings. Subgroup analyses also showed a significant negative association between greenness and suicide mortality for various stratified factors, such as sex, various income levels, urbanization levels, etc. Conclusions: Greenness exposure may contribute to a reduction in suicide mortality. It is recommended that policymakers and communities increase environmental greenness in order to mitigate the global health burden of suicide.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health