Exocytosis and endocytosis: Modes, functions, and coupling mechanisms*

Ling Gang Wu, Edaeni Hamid, Wonchul Shin, Hsueh Cheng Chiang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

153 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Vesicle exocytosis releases content to mediate many biological events, including synaptic transmission essential for brain functions. Following exocytosis, endocytosis is initiated to retrieve exocytosed vesicles within seconds to minutes. Decades of studies in secretory cells reveal three exocytosis modes coupled to three endocytosis modes: (a) full-collapse fusion, in which vesicles collapse into the plasma membrane, followed by classical endocytosis involving membrane invagination and vesicle reformation; (b) kiss-and-run, in which the fusion pore opens and closes; and (c) compound exocytosis, which involves exocytosis of giant vesicles formed via vesicle-vesicle fusion, followed by bulk endocytosis that retrieves giant vesicles. Here we review these exo- and endocytosis modes and their roles in regulating quantal size and synaptic strength, generating synaptic plasticity, maintaining exocytosis, and clearing release sites for vesicle replenishment. Furthermore, we highlight recent progress in understanding how vesicle endocytosis is initiated and is thus coupled to exocytosis. The emerging model is that calcium influx via voltage-dependent calcium channels at the calcium microdomain triggers endocytosis and controls endocytosis rate; calmodulin and synaptotagmin are the calcium sensors; and the exocytosis machinery, including SNARE proteins (synaptobrevin, SNAP25, and syntaxin), is needed to coinitiate endocytosis, likely to control the amount of endocytosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)301-331
Number of pages31
JournalAnnual Review of Physiology
Volume76
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Feb 1

Fingerprint

Exocytosis
Endocytosis
Calcium
R-SNARE Proteins
Synaptotagmins
Qa-SNARE Proteins
SNARE Proteins
Neuronal Plasticity
Calmodulin
Calcium Channels
Synaptic Transmission
Cell Membrane
Membranes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology

Cite this

Wu, Ling Gang ; Hamid, Edaeni ; Shin, Wonchul ; Chiang, Hsueh Cheng. / Exocytosis and endocytosis : Modes, functions, and coupling mechanisms*. In: Annual Review of Physiology. 2014 ; Vol. 76. pp. 301-331.
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Exocytosis and endocytosis : Modes, functions, and coupling mechanisms*. / Wu, Ling Gang; Hamid, Edaeni; Shin, Wonchul; Chiang, Hsueh Cheng.

In: Annual Review of Physiology, Vol. 76, 01.02.2014, p. 301-331.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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T2 - Modes, functions, and coupling mechanisms*

AU - Wu, Ling Gang

AU - Hamid, Edaeni

AU - Shin, Wonchul

AU - Chiang, Hsueh Cheng

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